- A type of PC created by Apple Computer in 1984
that first commercially introduced the graphical user interface (GUI), complete
with a mouse, icons, and windows. Microsoft Windows uses in its design similar
elements as the Macintosh operating system. The Mac operating system is the
most popular alternative to Windows.
- A Macintosh-based graphical-mode Web browser implemented
by MCC (see also MCC).
- The process of regularly inspecting, testing, and
updating the contents of Web pages; also, an attitude that such activities are
both inevitable and advisable.
- A set of Perl programs that automate the operation
of multiple mailing lists, including moderated and unmoderated mailing lists,
and routine handling of subscribe/unsubscribe operations.
- map file
- A set of pixel coordinates on a graphic image that
correspond to the boundaries of regions that users might select when using the
graphic for Web navigation. This file must be created by using a graphics program
to determine regions and their boundaries, and then stored on the Web server
that provides the coordinate translation and URL selection services.
- markup language
- A formal set of special characters and related
capabilities used to define a specific method for handling the display of files
that include markup; HTML is a markup language that is an application of SGML
and used to design and create Web pages.
- A way of embedding special characters (metacharacters)
within a text file that instructs a computer program how to handle the file's
- Mbps (Megabits per second)
- A measure of communications speeds, in units of
220 bits per second (220 = 1,048,576, which is just about 1,000,000 and explains
the quasi-metric "M" notation).
- MCC (Microelectronics and Computing Corporation)
- A computing industry consortium based in Austin,
Texas, that developed the WinWeb and MacWeb browser programs.
- A specific character within a text file that signals
the need for special handling; in HTML the angle brackets (< >), ampersand (&),
pound sign (#), and semi-colon (;) can all function as metacharacters.
- MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
- Http communications of Web information over the
Internet rely on a special variant of MIME formats to convey Web documents and
related files between servers and users. The same technology is used to convey
attached files with e-mail messages.
- An acronym for modulator/demodulator, a modem is
a piece of hardware that converts between analog forms for voice and data used
in the telephone system and digital forms used in computers. In other words,
a modem lets your computer communicate using the telephone system.
- A powerful graphical Web browser originally developed
at NCSA, now widely licensed and used in several browser implementations.
- .MPEG or .MPG
- An acronym for Motion Picture Experts' Group, .MPEG
is a highly compressed format designed moving pictures or other multiframe-per-second
media (like video). .MPEG not only provides high compression ratios (up to 200
to 1), it also updates only elements that have changed on screen from one frame
to the next, making it extraordinarily efficient. .MPEG is file extension that
denotes files using this format, but .MPG is the three-letter equivalent uses
on DOS and Windows 3.x systems (which can't handle four-letter file extensions).
- MPPP (Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol)
- An IP protocol that allows combined use of multiple
physical connections between two computers, to create a "larger" virtual link
between two machines.
- A method of combining text, sound, graphics, and
full-motion or animated video within a single compound computer document.
- MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage)
- A file system used on IBM mainframes and clones.
- In the context of the Web, navigation refers to
the use of hyperlinks to move within or between HTML documents and other Web-accessible
- navigation bar
- A way of arranging a series of hypertext links
on a single line of a Web page to provide a set of navigation controls for an
HTML document or a set of HTML documents.
- NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications)
- A research unit of the University of Illinois at
Urbana, where the original Mosaic browser was built, and where NCSA httpd code
is maintained and distributed.
- In computer terms, one structure that occurs within
another is said to be nested; in HTML, nesting happens most commonly with list
structures that may be freely nested within one another, regardless of type.
- A networking takeoff on the term etiquette, netiquette
refers to the written and unwritten rules of behavior on the Internet. When
in doubt if an activity is permitted or not, ask first, and then act only if
no one objects (check the FAQ for a given area, too -- it often explicitly states
the local rules of netiquette for a newsgroup, mailing list, and so on).
- network link
- The tie that binds a computer to a network; for
dial-in Internet users, this is usually a telephone link; for directly-attached
users, it is whatever kind of technology (Ethernet, token-ring, FDDI, and so
on) is in use.
- A term that describes individuals new to various
computer environments or applications.
- numeric entity
- A special markup element that reproduces a particular
character from the ISO-Latin-1 character set, a numeric entity takes the form
nnn; where nnn is the one-, two- or three-digit numeric code that corresponds
to a particular character (Chapter 7 contains a complete list of these codes).
- on-demand connection
- A dial-up link to a service provider that's available
whenever it's needed (on demand, get it?).
- A term that indicates that information, activity,
or communications are located on, or taking place in, an electronic, networked
computing environment (like the Internet). The opposite of online is offline,
which is what your computer is as soon as you disconnect from the Internet.
- OS (Operating System)
- The underlying control program on a computer that
makes the hardware run and supports the execution of one or more applications.
DOS, UNIX, and OS/2 are all examples of operating systems.
- A basic unit (or package) of data used to describe
individual elements of online communications; in other words, data moves across
networks like the Internet in packets.
- The generic term for the HTML documents that Web
users view on their browsers.
- The basic elements of text within an HTML document,
is the markup tag used to indicate a paragraph
break in text (the closing
tag is currently optional in HTML).
- path, pathname
- See directory path.
- PC (personal computer)
- Today, PC is used as a generic term to refer to
just about any kind of desktop computer; its original definition was as a product
name for IBM's 8086-based personal computer, the IBM/PC. Even though a PC is
technically any type of desktop computer, many people still use it to refer
to IBM-compatible machines only.
- PDF (Portable Document Format)
- Adobe's rich, typographically correct document
format, used to provide multiplatform document access through its Acrobat software
as a more powerful alternative to HTML.
- A powerful, compact programming language that draws
from languages like C, Pascal, sed, awk, and BASIC, Perl is the language of
choice for CGI programs, partly owing to its portability and the many platforms
on which it is currently supported, and partly owing to its ability to exploit
operating system services quickly and easily.
- physical markup
- Any of a series of HTML markup tags that specifically
control character styles -- bold (<B> and italic (<I>) -- or typeface
(<TT> for typewriter font).
- pick list
Generally, a list of elements displayed for user
selection of one or more choices; in HTML, the result of the <SELECT>
and <OPTION> tags.
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Revised -- January 16, 1998