Glossary - S


the glowing part on the front of your computer monitor where you see the Web do its thing (and anything else your computer might like to show you).
search engine
a special Web program that can search the contents of a database of available Web pages and other resources to provide information that relates to specific topics or keywords supplied by a user.
search tools
any of a number of programs (see Chapter 16) that can permit HTML documents to become searchable, using the <ISINDEX> tag to inform the browser of the need for a search window, and behind-the-scenes indexing and anchoring schemes to let users locate particular sections of or items within a document.
a powerful UNIX-based text-editing program that makes it easy to locate and manipulate text elements within any of a number of files.
a computer on a network whose job is to listen for particular service requests, and to respond to those that it knows how to satisfy.

service provider
an organization that provides individuals or other organizations with access to the Internet. Service providers usually offer a variety of communications options for their customers, ranging from analog telephone lines, to a variety of higher-bandwidth leased lines, to ISDN and other digital communications services.
when negotiating a network connection, the phase at the beginning of the communications process is called the "setup." At this point, protocol details, communication rates, and error-handling approaches will be worked out, allowing the connection to proceed correctly and reliably thenceforth.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
an ISO standard document definition, specification, and creation mechanism that makes platform and display differences across multiple computers irrelevant to the delivery and rendering of documents.
shell (see UNIX shell)
SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)
a relatively old-fashioned TCP/IP protocol used to manage telecommunications between a client and a server that treats the phone line as a "slow extension" to a network.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
the underlying protocol and service for Internet-based electronic mail.
spider (aka Web spider, Webcrawler)
a Web-traversing program that tirelessly investigates Web pages and their links, while storing information about its travels for inclusion in the databases typically used by search engines.
stdin (UNIX standard input device)
the default source for input in the UNIX environment, stdin is the input source for CGI programs as well.
stdout (UNIX standard output device)
the default recipient for output in the UNIX environment, stdout is the output source for Web browsers and servers as well (including CGI programs).
in HTML documents, we refer to superstructure as the layout and navigational elements used to create a consistent look and feel for Web pages belonging to a document set.
literally, the formal rules for how to speak, we use syntax in this book to describe the rules that govern how HTML markup looks and behaves within HTML documents. The real syntax definition for HTML comes from the SGML Document Type Definition (DTD).
syntax checker
a program that checks a particular HTML document's markup against the rules that govern its use; a recommended part of the testing regimen for all HTML documents.


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Revised -- May, 2002 [MCB]