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 Glossary - C

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C
a programming language developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories, C remains the implementation language for UNIX and the UNIX programmer's language of choice.
case -sensitive
means that the way computer input is typed is significant; for instance HTML tags can be typed in any mixture of upper- and lowercase, but because HTML character entities are case -sensitive, they must be typed exactly as reproduced in this book.
CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read-Only Memory)
a computer-readable version of the audio CD, CD-ROMs can contain up to 650 MB of data, making them the distribution media of choice for many of today's large (some would say even bloated) programs and systems.
CERN (Centre Europeen Recherche Nucleaire)
the Center for High-Energy Physics in Geneva, Switzerland; the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
character entity
a way of reproducing strange and wonderful characters within HTML, character entities take the form &string; where the ampersand (&) and semicolon are mandatory metacharacters, and string names the character to be reproduced in the browser. Because character entities are case -sensitive, the string between the ampersand and the semicolon must be reproduced exactly as written in Chapter 8 of this book.
character mode
when referring to Web browsers, character mode (also called textmode) means that such browsers can reproduce text data only. They cannot produce graphics directly, without the assistance of a helper application.
clickable map
a graphic in an HTML file that has had a pixel coordinate map file created for it, to allow regions of the graphic to point to specific URLs for graphically oriented Web navigation.

client
the end-user side of the client/server arrangement, the term "client" typically refers to a consumer of network services of one kind or another. A Web browser is therefore a client program that talks to Web servers.
client/server
a model for computing that divides computing into two separate roles, usually connected by a network: the client works on the end-user's side of the connection, and manages user interaction and display (input and output, and related processing), while the server works elsewhere on the network and manages data-intensive or shared processing activities, like serving up the collections of documents and programs that a Web server typically manages.
common controls
when designing HTML documents, most experts recommend that you build a set of consistent navigation controls and use them throughout a document (or collection of documents), providing a set of common controls for document navigation.
Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
the specification governing how Web browsers can communicate with and request services from Web servers; also the format and syntax for passing information from browsers to servers via forms or document-based queries in HTML.
computing platform
a way of referring to the kind of computer someone is using, this term encompasses both hardware (the type of machine, processor, etc.) and software (the operating system and applications) in use.
content
for HTML content is its raison d'etre; although form is important, content is why users access Web documents and why they keep coming back for more.
convention
an agreed-upon set of rules and approaches that allows systems to communicate with one another and work together.

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Revised -- May, 2002 [MCB]