Glossary - U


the operating system of choice for the Internet community at large, and the Web community, too, UNIX offers the broadest range of tools, utilities, and programming libraries for Web server use.

UNIX shell
the name of the command-line program used to manage user-computer interaction, the shell can also be used to write CGI scripts and other kinds of useful programs for UNIX.
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier)
any of a class of objects that identify resources available to the Web; both URLs and URNs are instances of URIs.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
the primary naming scheme used to identify Web resources, URLs define the protocols to be used, the domain name of the Web server where a resource resides, the port address to be used for communication, and the directory path to access a named Web file or resource.
URL-encoded text
a method for passing information requests and URL specification to Web servers from browsers, URL encoding replaces spaces with plus signs (+) and substitutes special hex codes for a range of otherwise unreproduceable characters. This method is used to pass document queries from browsers to servers (for the details, please consult Chapter 15).
URN (Uniform Resource Name)
a permanent, unchanging name for a Web resource, URNs are seldom used in today's Web environment. They do, however, present a method guaranteed to obtain access to a resource, as soon as the URN can be fully resolved (it sometimes consists of human or organizational contact information, rather than resource location data).
an Internet protocol and service that provides access to a vast array of named newsgroups, where users congregate to exchange information and materials related to specific topics or concerns.


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