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 Glossary - H

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heading
for HTML a heading is a markup tag used to add document structure. The term will sometimes be used to refer to the initial portion of an HTML document between the <HEAD> ... </HEAD> tags, where titles and context definitions are commonly supplied.

helper applications
today, browsers can display multiple graphics files (and sometimes other kinds of data); sometimes, browsers must pass particular files -- for instance, motion picture or sound files -- over to other applications that know how to render the data they contain. Such programs are called helper applications, because they help the browser deliver Web information to users.

hierarchical structure
a way of organizing Web pages using links that make some pages subordinate to others (see tree structured for another description of this kind of organization)

history list
each time a user accesses the Web, his or her browser will normally keep a list of all the URLs visited during that session; this is called a history list, and provides a handy way to jump back to any page that's already been visited while online. History lists normally disappear when the browser program is exited, though.

hotlist
A Web page that consists of a series of links to other pages, usually annotated with information about what's available on that link. Hotlists act like switchboards to content information, and are usually organized around a particular topic or area of interest.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
the SGML-derived markup language used to create Web pages. Not quite a programming language, HTML nevertheless provides a rich lexicon and syntax for designing and creating useful hypertext documents for the Web.

http or HTTP (hypertext teleprocessing protocol aka hypertext transfer protocol)
the Internet protocol used to manage communication between Web clients (browsers) and servers.

httpd (http daemon)
the name of the collection of programs that runs on a Web server to provide Web services. In UNIX-speak, a daemon is a program that runs all the time listening for service requests of a particular type; thus, an httpd is a program that runs all the time on a Web server, ready to field and handle Web service requests.

hyperlink
a shorthand term for hypertext link, which is defined below.

hypermedia
any of a variety of computer media -- including text, graphics, video, sound, etc. -- available through hypertext links on the Web.

hypertext
a method of organizing text, graphics, and other kinds of data for computer use that lets individual data elements point to one another; a nonlinear method of organizing information, especially text.

hypertext link
in HTML, a hypertext link is defined by special markup that creates a user-selectable document element that can be selected to change the user's focus from one document (or part of a document) to another.

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Revised -- May, 2002 [MCB]