XML For Dummies, 2nd Edition Glossary: S-Z




schema
A pattern that represents the data's model defining the elements (or objects), their attributes (or properties), and the relationships between the different elements.

scripting
Creating a set of instructions for a Web page using a scripting language.

scripting language
A specialized language used to create scripts that, when inserted into a Web page, control various elements of the page, such as the user interface, styles, and HTML markup.

semantics
The science of describing what words mean, the opposite of syntax.

serif
A font type where lines extend from the tops (called ascenders, as in the stem of the letter "d") and from the bases (called descenders, as in the stem of the letter "p") of certain letters.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
A metalanguage used to construct new markup languages, such as MathML and CML.

SGML declaration
Contains certain instructions, independent of a DTD, for an SGML parser.

SGML normalizer
See normalizers.

SGML parser
A program that determines the syntactic structure of a series of symbols or a sentence in a programming language.

SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm)
An algorithm similar to the MD5 algorithm, but its checksums are 160 bits long and have different properties.

singleton tag
A tag used in markup languages that does not require a closing tag.

SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language)
A language designed to allow the integration of a collection of multimedia objects in a synchronized fashion.

SQL server
A database server that uses the Structured Query Language (SQL) to accept requests for data access; also, the name of a Microsoft database engine that belongs to its NT-based BackOffice family of products.

stoichiometry
An element's chemical composition.

style rule
A rule in an XML document that specifies a pattern and an action that the rule applies when the specified pattern is found. Such rules can result from the application of a Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) or by the application of the Extensible Style Language (XSL) -- itself a dialect of XML.

Stylesheet Object Model
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is one model for manipulating style in a document. The Stylesheet Object Model exposes the ability to create, modify, and associate CSS stylesheets with documents.

stylesheets
A file that holds the layout settings for a certain category of a document. Stylesheets, like templates, contain settings for headers and footers, tabs, margins, fonts, columns, and more.

superset
A collection of functions and commands that encompasses and surpasses the capabilities of some other specification. A hardware component or software that was created under the original specifications will operate with a "superset" product. The reverse, however, is not true.

syntax
See HTML syntax.

Tcl (Tool Command Language)
A well-founded and powerful scripting language. Pronounced "tickle."

TEI (Text Encoding Initiative)
A compact syntax for creating complex links. TEI is one of the standards that influenced the design of the XML Extensible Linking Language (XLL). TEI's guidelines furnish a concise syntax for designating complicated links.

Typesetting system
A software and output rendering system used to prepare documents for publication.

Unicode character set
A 16-bit character encoding scheme defined in ISO/IED 10646 that encompasses standard Roman and Greek alphabets, plus mathematical symbols, special punctuation, and non-Roman alphabets that include Hebrew, Chinese, Arabic, Hanggul, and other ideographic character sets as well.

UNIX
Designed by a hacker in 1969 as an interactive time-sharing operating system to play games on, it is now one of the most powerful multi-user operating systems around.

URI (Uniform Resource Identifier )
A character string that identifies the type and location of an Internet resource.

URN (Universal Resource Name)
A type of URI, for a 128-bit MD5 checksum.

Visual Basic
A programming language created by Microsoft as a version of BASIC.

Visual C++
The object-oriented implementation of the C programming language created by Microsoft. This tool provides a development environment for DOS and Windows applications.

W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)
The organization that develops standards for the World Wide Web.

Web automation standard
A standard developed by the W3C that governs the type of automation used on the Web.

Web Collections
The specification proposed by Microsoft for describing Web resources. The equivalent of Meta Content Framework (MCF) proposed by Netscape.

white space
The area in a document created by spaces or paragraphs that does not contain text or graphics; in other words, the "blank" part of a page.

WIDL (Web Interface Definition Language)
A relatively new, object-oriented SGML-based markup language created to help designers create powerful, intuitive Web-based user interfaces.

WMF (Windows Meta File)
A Windows file format used for text, bitmaps, and vector graphics.

WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) interface
An interface that allows users to enter and see information as it should appear in the final document, rather showing all the markup embedded with the text or other content.

XLL (eXtensible Linking Language)
In XML documents, it is a language that provides a simple set of instructions that describe the links among objects. It also maintains the addressing inside XML documents.

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
A system for defining, validating, and sharing document formats.

XML dialect
Any implementation of domain-specific XML notation governed by a standard DTD designed to support chemical markup (CML), mathematical markup (MathML), channel definitions (CDF), and so forth.

XML element
Also called an XML object. It is specified by using an XML tag.

XML entities
A string of characters that let viewers display symbols, yet not interpret them as markup. Entities often let viewers represent a larger range of characters than may otherwise be possible, yet keep character sets small.

XML namespace
Within any single XML document and its related DTD(s), all names for entities and elements must be unique. The combination of all names across such related files and documents is called the XML namespace for the document or documents in which common content and markup occurs.

XML notation
A form of XML markup designed to accomplish some specific objective; examples include the mathematical and chemical notations supported by the MathML and CML XML dialects, respectively.

XPointer mechanism
A multiway pointer syntax developed for use within XML, modeled on the TEI initiative.

XSL (Extensible Style Language)
Similar to CSS, it defines the specification for an XML document's presentation and appearance. Both CSS and XSL provide a platform-independent method for specifying the document's presentation style.

ZIP archive
A highly compressed file format, originally associated with Phil Katz's PC-based PKZip program, now supported by a variety of software products on most desktop platforms. .ZIP files represent a major technique for file interchange on the Internet and elsewhere.

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