XML For Dummies, 2nd Edition Glossary: M-R

A text or code script that performs an action when called, usually used to automate repetitive keystrokes and/or mouse click sequences.

MathML (Mathematical Markup Language)
An XML application used for specialized applications, such as rendering mathematical content and notation over the Internet or an intranet.

MCF (Meta Content Framework)
A specification proposed by Netscape for describing Web resources. Equivalent to Web Collections, which is proposed by Microsoft.

MD5 algorithm
A well-known algorithm for computing a 128-bit checksum for any file or object.

Specially defined elements that describe a document's structure, content, or rendering, within the document itself, or through external references (metadata literally means "data about data").

A language used to communicate information about language itself; many experts consider both SGML and XML to be metalanguages because they can be used to define markup languages.

multimedia presentation
A presentation that involves two or more forms of media (text, audio, and video, for example).

multiway links
Special-purpose hyperlinks in an XML document where a single link can simultaneously point to multiple targets. On a multi-frame page, this would allow a single hyperlink to cause multiple frame areas to be updated at the same time.

A Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP)-based, named message group, or some other data channel that uses the XML CDF dialect to deliver targeted information or data to a list of subscribers.

A group of users who discuss issues related to a specific topic. Newsgroups are typically found on Usenet or other NNTP-based servers.

Typically found in SGML, an application that takes an SGML document instance and a DTD, and adds markup that has been omitted by the author.

numeric entities
Strings of numbers that represent characters. These are identified by a pound sign (#) that follow an ampersand. For example, &#60; and &#200; show a string of numbers (60 and 200) that stand for characters (< and È).

OS (Operating System)
The underlying control program that makes the hardware run on a computer system. It also supports the execution of applications. UNIX and DOS are two of the more common operating systems.

OSD (Open Software Description)
Created by Microsoft and Marimba, OSD is an XML-based specification designed to help automate Internet-based software distribution and lower the cost of PC ownership. OSD uses unique XML tags to describe software components, including versions, underlying structure, relationships to other components, and dependencies.

PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection) label
PICS labels are used to give better control over the content that can be accessed by certain audiences.

POST method
A means of returning information provided by a user via an HTML form to a server. Posted data returns to the server as directed by a CGI script. Often, such data is analyzed or processed in some way by an application that then returns a new Web page, often generated on-the-fly, to the user's browser.

presentation markup tag
A tag that affects a document's display characteristics.

primary key
An element's unique identifier.

Another name for an attribute.

push technology
A technique to initiate delivery of material from a server to a properly-equipped client.

quantity set
An SGML declaration instruction that lets users specify the upper bound for a set of quantity names.

RDBMS (Relational Database Management System)
A table-oriented database management system built around the relational model first developed at IBM in the 1970s by E. F. Codd and C. J. Date. Microsoft Access, Sybase SQL Server, and Oracle are all relational database systems.

RDF (Resource Description Framework)
An effort from the W3C to consolidate and coordinate many related efforts to define metadata that can describe what documents contain (or what they can deliver) using consistent, coherent markup and notation.

RDF grammar
Defines the tags (and their attributes) used to represent resources.

registration server
A special network server that provides information about individual clients, to authenticate their identities and establish authorization to access particular resources; alternatively, a server that provides a common location where individual documents, DTDs, or other shared elements can be accessed (especially those defined for standard elements, or for standard XML dialects, such as CML, MathML, and so forth).

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Revised -- February 7, 2000