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 Glossary - A

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absolute
when used to modify pathnames or URLs, it means a full and complete specification (as opposed to a relative one).

acceptable use
a doctrine originally formulated by the National Science Foundation restricting the Internet to research and academic, but not commercial, use.
alpha test
the testing on software performed by the developers, usually during the development process; also, the first of several stages in the software testing process (see beta test).
anchor
in HTML, an anchor is a tagged text or graphic element that acts as a link to another location inside or outside a given document, or it may be a location in a document that acts as the destination for an incoming link. The latter definition is most commonly how we use it in this book.
animation
a computerized process of creating moving images by rapidly advancing from one still image to the next
anonymous ftp
a type of Internet file access that relies on the File Transfer Protocol service, where any user can typically access a file collection by logging in as anonymous, and supplying his or her username as a password
AppleScript
the scripting language for the Macintosh operating system, used to build CGI programs for Macintosh-based Web servers
Archie
an Internet-based archival search facility, based on databases of file and directory names taken from anonymous ftp servers around the Internet
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Administration; see DARPA)
attribute
in HTML tags, an attribute is a named characteristic of an associated tag. Some attributes are required, while others are optional. Some attributes may also take values (if so the syntax is ATTRIBUTE="value") or not, depending on the tag and the attribute (see Chapter 7 for tag details in alphabetical order)
AUP (Acceptable Use Policy; see acceptable use)
authoring software
in the context of HTML, authoring software refers to programs that understand HTML tags and their placement. Some such programs can even enforce HTML syntax; others can convert from word processing or document formatting programs to HTML formats.
awk
a powerful scripting language included with most implementations of UNIX, awk supplements the file-processing capabilities of the UNIX shells, including pattern-matching of fields and C-like structured programming constructs.
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